Incandescent light bulb – Incandescent lamps were the first way to generate light from electric power. Its principle of operation is simple. An electric current is passed through a filament until it reaches a temperature so high that it emits visible radiations by the human eye. Called Incandescent Lamp, bulb, lamp or light bulb device that shines light through heating by Joule effect of a metal filament, to put at white, by passing electric current. The incandescent lamp is the most popular because of its low price and the warm color of its light. It is also the least luminous performance: 12 to 18 lm / W (lumens per watt) and the one with the shortest service life, about 1000 hours.
Incandescent light bulb does not offer very good reproduction of the colors since it does not emit in the zone of cold colors. But being its continuous emission spectrum it manages to contain all the wavelengths in the part that emits of the spectrum. Its efficiency is very low. Since it only makes work (visible light) about 15% of the energy consumed. Another 25% will be transformed into heat energy and the remaining 60% in non-perceptible waves (ultraviolet and infrared light) that eventually become heat. Technically they are very inefficient since 90% of the electricity they use transform it into heat.
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The main component of the incandescent lamp is the filament. As current passes through it, it can be heated as a resistance until it becomes incandescent, remaining in this state for a long time. This filament is manufactured in tungsten. Whose melting point is high: 3655 ° K (degrees Kelvin)? This filament must be protected in a medium that prevents it from deteriorating, which is achieved by placing it inside an incandescent light bulb, bulb or glass ampoule that is in the vacuum or with an inert gas. A tungsten lamp can operate with any type of voltage source. Either DC or AC, although the lamp life is shorter when operating on direct current.
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